AAA Cybersecurity Framework
What is Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)?
Authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) is a security framework that controls access to computer resources, enforces policies, and audits usage. AAA and its combined processes play a major role in network management and cybersecurity by screening users and keeping track of their activity while they are connected.
Authentication involves a user providing information about who they are. Users present login credentials that affirm they are who they claim. As an identity and access management (IAM) tool, a AAA server compares a user’s credentials with its database of stored credentials by checking if the username, password, and other authentication tools align with that specific user.
The three types of authentication include something you know, like a password, something you have, like a Universal Serial Bus (USB) key; and something you are, such as your fingerprint or other biometrics.
Authorization follows authentication. During authorization, a user can be granted privileges to access certain areas of a network or system. The areas and sets of permissions granted a user are stored in a database along with the user’s identity. The user’s privileges can be changed by an administrator. Authorization is different from authentication in that authentication only checks a user’s identity, whereas authorization dictates what the user is allowed to do.
For example, a member of the IT team may not have the privileges necessary to change the access passwords for a company-wide virtual private network (VPN). However, the network administrator may choose to give the member access privileges, enabling them to alter the VPN passwords of individual users. In this manner, the team member will be authorized to access an area they were previously barred from.
Accounting keeps track of user activity while users are logged in to a network by tracking information such as how long they were logged in, the data they sent or received, their Internet Protocol (IP) address, the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) they used, and the different services they accessed.
Accounting may be used to analyze user trends, audit user activity, and provide more accurate billing. This can be done by leveraging the data collected during the user’s access. For example, if the system charges users by the hour, the time logs generated by the accounting system can report how long the user was logged in to the router and inside the system, and then charge them accordingly.
Identity and Access Management (IAM)
What is an IAM Framework?
An IAM framework often includes a variety of solutions, tools, processes, policies, and technologies designed to ensure the right individuals have the right access to enterprise assets; to help security professionals manage and monitor the user lifecycle; and to protect enterprise assets from both internal and external threats. The components of an IAM framework are based on the following principles:
Identification or Authentication: Confirming or denying the identity of the user attempting to access an asset. Single sign on (SSO) is a form of authentication. Authorization: Controlling what a user is able to do once they are operating within an enterprise asset. Role-based access controls (RBAC) are an example of an authorization approach.
Administration and Management: Provisioning and managing throughout the user account lifecycle—from setup to deactivation, as well as the administration and management of requirements related to compliance and regulation and access to different computing environments and architectures, including on-premise, software as a service (SaaS), UNIX, Windows, iOS, and Android.
Monitoring and Auditing: Observing, tracking, managing, and reporting on a user’s activities. The types of data and metrics that are often monitored or audited include password resets, uncorrelated accounts, number of accounts and associated roles and entitlements across applications and systems, login failures, uncorrelated privileged accounts, separation-of-duty violations, non-human identities and associated access.
Security and Protection: Protecting enterprise assets (corporate devices, systems, data, networks, or software applications) from threats, such as breaches and damage due to unauthorized access by external threat actors, as well as insiders, such as disgruntled employees.
JPCERT/CC stands for Japan Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center. It is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1996 to help improve information security in Japan. JPCERT/CC provides a variety of services, including:
- Incident response: JPCERT/CC provides support to organizations that have experienced a computer security incident. This support can include technical assistance, incident management guidance, and public relations assistance.
- Vulnerability reporting: JPCERT/CC accepts reports of software vulnerabilities from organizations and individuals. JPCERT/CC then works with software vendors to ensure that these vulnerabilities are fixed.
- Security awareness: JPCERT/CC provides security awareness training to organizations and individuals. This training helps people to understand the risks of computer security and how to protect themselves from these risks.
- Research: JPCERT/CC conducts research on computer security issues. This research helps JPCERT/CC to better understand the threats that organizations face and to develop new ways to protect them.
JPCERT/CC is a valuable resource for organizations that are looking to improve their information security. By providing a variety of services, JPCERT/CC can help organizations to prevent, detect, and respond to computer security incidents.
Here are some of the things that JPCERT/CC does:
- Collects and analyzes information about computer security incidents.
- Provides guidance and support to organizations that have experienced a security incident.
- Works with software vendors to fix software vulnerabilities.
- Educates the public about computer security risks.
- Researches computer security issues.
JPCERT/CC is a valuable resource for anyone who is interested in computer security. If you are a security professional, you can use JPCERT/CC’s resources to stay up-to-date on the latest security threats and to learn about new security technologies. If you are a business owner, you can use JPCERT/CC’s resources to improve your organization’s security posture. And if you are a student, you can use JPCERT/CC’s resources to learn about computer security and to get involved in the security community.
The NIST Risk Management Framework (RMF) is a comprehensive, flexible, repeatable, and measurable 7-step process that any organization can use to manage information security and privacy risk for organizations and systems. NIST RMF is based on the following principles:
- Risk-based: NIST RMF takes a risk-based approach to security, meaning that organizations identify and assess the risks to their information and systems, and then implement security controls to mitigate those risks.
- Systems-focused: NIST RMF is systems-focused, meaning that it applies to all types of information systems, including both physical and virtual systems.
- Lifecycle-based: NIST RMF is lifecycle-based, meaning that it applies to all phases of the system lifecycle, from development to operation to disposal.
- Repeatable: NIST RMF is repeatable, meaning that organizations can use it to continuously improve their security posture.
- Measurable: NIST RMF is measurable, meaning that organizations can track their progress in implementing and managing security controls.
NIST RMF consists of the following 7 steps:
- Prepare: In this step, organizations establish a risk management framework and define their security roles and responsibilities.
- Categorize: In this step, organizations identify and classify their information and systems based on their sensitivity and importance.
- Select: In this step, organizations select security controls to mitigate the risks to their information and systems.
- Implement: In this step, organizations implement the selected security controls.
- Assess: In this step, organizations assess the effectiveness of the implemented security controls.
- Authorize: In this step, organizations authorize the use of information and systems based on their risk level.
- Monitor: In this step, organizations monitor the security posture of their information and systems and make necessary changes to the security controls.
NIST RMF is a valuable tool for any organization that is looking to improve its information security. By following the NIST RMF, organizations can identify and mitigate risks to their information and systems, and improve their overall security posture.
Here are some of the benefits of using NIST RMF:
- Improved security posture: NIST RMF can help organizations to improve their security posture by identifying and mitigating risks to their information and systems.
- Increased compliance: NIST RMF can help organizations to comply with security regulations, such as the Federal Information Security Modernization Act (FISMA).
- Reduced costs: NIST RMF can help organizations to reduce the costs of security by avoiding costly security breaches and incidents.
- Increased confidence: NIST RMF can help organizations to increase confidence in their security posture by providing a systematic approach to risk management.
If you are looking for a way to improve your organization’s information security, NIST RMF is a valuable tool to consider.
IAM Identity and Access Management
Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a framework for managing the identities and access rights of users and applications.
IAM helps organizations to ensure that only authorized users have access to sensitive data and systems.
IAM typically includes the following features:
- User management: IAM allows organizations to create, manage, and disable user accounts.
- Role-based access control (RBAC): IAM allows organizations to define roles that define the permissions that users have to access resources.
- Multi-factor authentication (MFA): IAM allows organizations to require users to provide multiple forms of identification, such as a password and a code from a physical device, before they can access resources.
- Access auditing: IAM allows organizations to track who has accessed resources and when.
IAM is an important part of an organization’s overall security strategy. IAM can help organizations to protect their data and systems from unauthorized access.
Here are some of the benefits of implementing IAM:
- Increased security: IAM can help organizations to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive data and systems.
- Improved efficiency: IAM can help organizations to streamline the user provisioning and deprovisioning process.
- Reduced costs: IAM can help organizations to reduce the costs associated with managing user access.
- Improved compliance: IAM can help organizations to comply with regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
IAM is a valuable tool for organizations of all sizes. IAM can help organizations to improve their security posture, increase their efficiency, and reduce their costs.